NATURAL CONDITIONS IN MOLDAVA AND ITS SURROUNDINGS
The Municipality Moldava is situated in the north-western part of the Czech Republic near the border with Germany. It lies on the Ore Mountain hilltops, on Novoměstské plains and in the stream Mulda valley.
The flora is manifold. The higher locations of the Ore Mountains were originally overgrown by Acidophilous and Herb-rich beech forests. These were later substituted by spruce monocultures. A significant biotope in the Ore Mountains is represented by peat bogs and formerly cultivated floriferous meadows where many important and disappearing plants e.g. Orange-lily (Lilium bulbiferum), Lousewort (Pedicularis sylvatica), Globeflower (Trollius altissimus), Heath Spotted-orchid (Dactylorhiza maculata), Butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris).
The Ore Mountains climate is influenced by the sea level altitude. The average yearly temperature is between 8 and 9 degrees Celsius.
Red deer (Servus elaphus), Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), Wild boar (Sus scropha) are big mammals characteristic for wooded areas of the Ore Mountains. In 1958 European moose (Alces alces) was shot by mistake near Moldava. Another moose was observed in Moldava again in 1987. There is a theory that the Ore Mountains create a part of a historical moose migration route in the direction North – South. The combination of peat bogs, meadows and young plantings of substitute tree species in the Ore Mountains ranges creates an ideal environment for endangered Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix), which nests here. Other bird species which colonize wood biotope are e.g. Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Long-eared Owl (Asio otus), Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Boreal Owl (Aegolius funereus). Invertebrate animals are represented by several species of protected ants of the Formica tribe, bumblebees of Bombus tribe and some species of ground beetles.
PROTECTED LANDSCAPE AREAS:
BUKY NA BOUŘŇÁKU (Beeches on Bouřňák)
Declared in 1979
Area of 3,26 ha
The aim is to protect about 200-year-old beech forest at a sea level altitude of 850 m which is deformed into bizarre shapes. Beeches occur on the western hillside of Bouřňák, 400 metres south-east from Nové Město at Moldava.
GRÜNWALDSKÉ VŘESOVIŠTĚ (Grünwald Peat Bog)
Declared in 1989
Area of 39,23 ha
The peat bog is upland moor of watershed type overgrown by bog pines (Pinus pseudopumilio) and typical bog flora. It is also a breeding place of Black Grouse (Tetrao tetrix). The peat bog is situated on the Ore Mountains plateau 2,5 km south from Moldava and 2,5 km west from Nové Město. Local peat is the Qaternary organic sediment, which sometimes occurs even in 6-meter thick layers. Besides scrub there are also endangered Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), Black crowberry (Empetrum nigrum), endangered Marsh tea (Ledum palustre), Small cranberry (Oxycoccus palustris) and Bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia). Other typical species are hare‘s-tail cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum), Bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum) and Heather (Calluna vulgaris). 55 species of vertebrate were observed in this locality, among them Fantail snipe (Gallinago gallinago), Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), Hen harrier (Cirkus cyaneus), Boreal owl (Aegolius funereus), Red-backed shrike (Lanius colurio), Adder (Vipera berus) and Common lizard (Zootoca Vivipara).
(written by: Mgr. Markéta Kvasňová)